Changsha, 长沙 in Chinese, the capital of Hunan Province, is located in eastern Hunan Province in the south of China at the lower reach of the Xingjiang River. It has an area of 960 square kilometers, and its population is 5. 97 million. The coldest temperature is about-8 ℃ in January and the hottest about 30 0 C in July. The annual rainfall averages from1250-1752 millimeters, mostly from April to June.
Changsha, as one of China's main rice-growing areas, was a small town3, 000 years ago. More than 2, 000years ago, Changsha was a town named Qingyang. After Emperor Qinshihuang (246-209 BC) unified China, Changsha became one of 36 prefectures. Around 200 BC the Prince of Changsha in the Han Dynasty began to build the city. It was Changsha Prefecture in the period of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and became municipality in 1933. It was almost completely destroyed during the Anti-Japanese War.
Changsha is a city with a glorious revolutionary tradition. It has many sites associated with the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao and his early revolutionary activities. Chairman Mao was born and lived nearby in Shaoshan. These sites include the First Normal School of Hunan where Chairman Mao studied for about five years (1912-1918) and later taught, Qingshuitang (Clear Pool), the site where the Hunan Area Communist Party Committee was founded in 1921,and the "Teach-Yourself College "where the Party carried out its overt activities. They house many valuable relics and documents recording the history of the Chinese revolution and the exploits of Mao Zedong.
Besides the above revolutionary sites, Changsha also has many other famous scenic spots such as Yuelu Hills, Tianxin (Heart of Heaven) Park, Orange Island Park, the Hunan Provincial Museum, the Han Tomb Site in Mawangdui and the Hunan Provincial Embroidery Factory. Its embroidery is one of the four most famous in China.